A while back I gave a presentation at the offices of SURF during a small scale seminar on Grey Literature in the Netherlands. The occasion was the visit of Amanda Lawrence to SURF to discuss Grey Literature in the Netherlands.
I was invited to give a presentation of Grey Literature at Wageningen UR. The slides I used are shared in this Slideshare.
Where I always assume that slides tell their story themselves. It is perhaps a good idea to provide some narrative in this blog post to explain certain parts that are perhaps less obvious. In the first slides I present the university and the research institutes at Wageningen. The student staff ratios are so favourable since Wageningen UR comprises of a university and a number of substantive research institutes that concentrate on research in the life sciences only and have no teaching obligations.
CRIS and repository
At the library we manage two systems for the whole organization that are closely intertwined. The current research information system (CRIS) called Metis. In Metis we register all output of Wageningen UR faculty and staff. The data entry normally takes places at the chair group level. Most often the secretary of the chair group or business unit is responsible and the library checks the quality of the data entry and maintains the various lists that facilitates data entry and quality control. Output registration in the metis is really comprehensive, since evaluations, award of bonuses, prizes, promotions, research assessments and external peer reviews take place on the metadata registered in the Metis.
All information that is registered in the CRIS, Metis, is published in our institutional bibliography called Staff Publications. I prefer the term institutional bibliography since the term repository is often associated with Open Access repositories or (open access) institutional repositories only. Whereas in my view the institutional bibliography is the comprehensive metadata collection for all output of the institution including, but not limited to, Open Access publications. It goes without saying that data sets are an integral part of the research output, and we are starting to register datasets in our systems as well.
The coupling of the CRIS and the institutional bibliography exists only since 2003. We have in our bibliography a collection of 90,000 heritage metadata records of lesser quality. Of the 200,000+ items in our repository 25% contain open access items. Looking at the peer reviewed journal articles registered in our staff publications (indicated as WaY in the graph) you can see that it closely follows th enumber of articles that van be retrieved from either Scopus or Web of Science. There are differences in the coverage between Web of Science and Scopus, but both databases seem to cover Wageningen UR output quite closely. Or not?
In slides 6 I show all metadata registrations of publication output. Reaching more than 12,500 items described for the publication year 2010. In the year the number of peer reviewed articles registered was only around 2700 peer reviewed publications. We registered nearly 10,000 other items of research output. In slide 7 I present an overview of the various document types registered on top of peer reviewed publications only. Most important are the “other” articles, those are
articles published in trade or vocational journals. These have very often to do with the societal role the university and research institutes play. These articles are aimed at the larger public and therefore very often in Open Access as well. Book chapters and reports are also very substantial amounts of publications. The reports are most often aimed at the various ministries for which the research institutes work and most often published as OA reports as well. With book chapters this is often not the case. On a yearly basis they are not so conspicuous, but the PhD-theses are nearly all available in Open Access or in a few cases as delayed Open Access. The other items include presentations, brochures, lectures, patents, interviews for newspapers, radio or TV. It is all registered. It all makes a very substantial addition to the peer reviewed publications only.
Dissemination to the Cloud(s)
The institutional bibliography plays a crucial role in the dissemination of information to other parties. All metadata records are indexed in both Google and slightly less in Google Scholar, but we experience problems with Google Scholar indexing the full text of our Open Access publications, since the full text files are located on a separate filing systems. All Dutch language publications are disseminated trough Groenkennisnet.nl a portal for education and practitioners in the green sector. Wageningen UR Staff Publications is fully OAI/PMH compatible and data is disseminated to Narcis, the overarching repository of repositories in the Netherlands. Other repository aggregators include OAISTER and BASE. The information is harvested by the FAO, which plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of agricultural information in the world. All our PhD-theses are disseminated to DART-Europe the Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) portal for Europe. With our retrospectively digitized collection of theses we are the 12th largest collection of PhD theses in Europe.
The growth of Open Access publications is a steady one, although we occasionally face sets backs. Last year for instance we got claims from photographers whose images were used in trade journals for illustration purposes, and the IP rights for electronic dissemination were not rightfully addressed. Currently we just passed the 50,000 OA publications border. When you look at all depositions of OA material in Dutch repositories, Wageningen UR stands out in depositing current material (slide 10). Outperforming any of the other universities (slide 11). Looking at the documentation types of the recent material deposited, it is immediately apparent that Wageningen deposits relatively large numbers of reports and contributions to periodicals (the trade and vocational journals) and also deposits more conference papers as Open Access publications.
De deposition of green OA peer reviewed journal articles is not very successful. We don’t have an intuitive system for the researchers to deposit their publication in place. The library systematically checks the publications and see what we are allowed to do with the publishers versions of the article. In the first place we look at the DOAJ journal list, and actively load those articles in the repository. Secondly we look at the Sherpa/Romeo list of publishers allowing the delayed archiving of publishers PDF. The third list, not truly OA, is the list of publishers allowing free to read access after an embargo period, which we link. A last resort, could be, to link to deposited material in PMC. But we haven’t done that yet. The first two steps leads to 23% of our peer reviewed journal articles being available in Open Access, steps 3 and 4 still need to be executed.
Why are we so successful in collecting the grey literature output? At the university registration of output is grind in the system. We started at the university in 1975 already and it took years before everybody complied. But faculty and staff are now quite used to do this. Registration also leads to comprehensive reports on publications activities of researchers and research groups. For the relatively recent introduced tenure track, the systems calculates the research credits for the candidates. For staff we provide an attractive graphic overview of their publications with various par charts and pie charts and their co-author network, but most important is a bibliometric report on the basis of articles published in journals covered in the Web of Science, benchmarked on the basis of the baselines from the Essential Science Indicators.
If all universities register the publication output more comprehensively in their current research information systems, these outputs can then be made available trough their repositories. In the example of the publication in Dutch on Culicoides, we see that it concerns a report by researchers from Utrecht University, but this report is not to be found in their OA repository (The publication is not scientific!?) nor in the catalogue of the university. If Narcis would be made the official tool for reporting publication output to the ministry of education on publication out put in the Netherlands in a transparent and verifiable way, publications like these will make a chance to be collected, described and curated.
If the OA repository infrastructure in the Netherlands improves, Narcis can be turned into a service as link resolver. Using the DOI, we could resolve that against the publishers site, but also to Narcis which point to an OA version of the same paper at a repository of one of the universities. In the case of public libraries in the Netherlands, we could configure a national link resolver that exposes OA material in addition to the efficient Google Scholar Open Access material. This is important since not all repository content is discovered in Google Scholar.
With regards to a new knowledge economy, a important report was published quite recently. However, the report did not mention libraries, did not mention repositories, did not mention grey literature. So there is still a world to win for comprehensive institutional repositories that collects and disseminate all the grey literature that is openly available.
WRR. 2013. Naar een lerende economie : Investeren in het verdienvermogen van Nederland. WRR report Vol. 90. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 440 pp. http://www.wrr.nl/publicaties/publicatie/article/naar-een-lerende-economie-1/